In Antiquity, the Park region was settled by several peoples. The largest part was occupied by the Gabales, whose territory corresponds to the Gévaudan (Lozère), with Anderitum-Javols as capital. At the time, the area was widely settled, its land developed and its resources – minerals and wood – used. There is evidence of towns and farms; overland communication routes allowed the economy to develop.
Three modest towns from Antiquity have been discovered in this sector: Bagnols-les-Bains, Meyrueis and Perjuret.
The area has several agricultural buildings from this period. A number have been excavated: the villae of Rouveret-la Faïsse (La Malène), Finiols (Lanuéjols) and Saint-Clément (Saint-Martin-de-Lansuscle).
The Lanuéjols mausoleum is testament to the existence of a Gallo-Roman estate in the Valdonnez. It has been erected to the memory of two missing sons of a rich family of Gabales landowners, the Pomponii.
There were two main routes: the Régordane and the Coudoulous road. The first linked Languedoc to the Massif Central. The second linked the Régordane to Mont Lozère.
Mining activities, crafts and exploitation of the forest have been present in the area of the National Park since Antiquity.